ARDEEM is a system dynamics model designed to simulate the combined environmental and economic implications of change in the Auckland Region between 1998 and 2051. ARDEEM builds on the static monetary and physical flow models developed by McDonald and Patterson (1999), McDonald, Le Heron and Patterson (1999) and McDonald (2004a, 2004b, 2005). The model is characterised by positive and negative non-linear feed backs between its component modules. The purpose of the model is not to predict Auckland Region‘s economic future, but instead to highlight possible physical and economic consequences under various scenarios. A key reason for the adoption of a system dynamics modelling framework is that it allows a great deal of flexibility in setting the scenarios that may be investigated. The scenarios themselves are designed to capture not only the 'business as usual‘ situation, but also the dynamic physical and economic consequences resulting from more extreme change.


ARDEEM is a dynamic simulation model of economic–environment futures for the Auckland Region.

State of Development Please Select

Development Contact

Garry McDonald
+64 09 915 5520
Market Economics
PO Box 331 297 Takapuna 0740 Auckland New Zealand


Spatial Resolutions 10-100m
Spatial Extents Regional
Spatial Dimensions Unknown
Temporal Resolutions Unknown
Temporal Extents Decades
Steady State or Dynamic Dynamic

Input & Output Data

Input Data Formats XLS(X)


Open/Closed Source Please Select

User Information

Operating Systems Unknown
Software Needed Vensim
User Interface Please Select
Ease of Use Please Select
Documentation McDONALD (2005) Integrating economics and ecology A systems approach to sustainability in the Auckland region. PhD Thesis. Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Technical Considerations

Analytical Techniques System dynamics
Keywords ecological economics, integration, system dynamics, Auckland, scenarios