CLUES is a catchment-based model developed to address “what if” scenarios under different land use at large scales. CLUES predicts the impacts of land use changes on river quality and socio-economic indicators, e.g. GDP, or employment. It also identifies sensitive and at risk catchments.
CLUES is a modelling system for assessing the effects of land use change on water quality and socio-economic factors at a minimum scale of sub-catchments (~10 km2 and above). CLUES was developed for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in association with the Ministry for the Environment (MfE) by NIWA, in collaboration with Lincoln Ventures, Harris Consulting, AgResearch, HortResearch, Crop and Food Research, and Landcare Research.
CLUES couples a number of existing models within a GIS-platform and is provided to users as a front-end interface for ArcGIS which queries a geo-spatial database. The CLUES interface has tools which allow users to develop land use change and farm practice scenarios. The latter refer to percentate adjustments to stocking rates and contaminant yields from stock. CLUES models nitrogen and phosphorus loads in streams in specific locations under different land-use scenarios. Links to socio-economic models mean that the effects of a large-scale change in land-use, say from grazing livestock to viticulture, on local communities can also be predicted.
The CLUES project includes creating national maps of land use, soils, and pollution risk, plus extensive databases predicting nitrogen leaching for many combinations of crop, fertiliser, climate, and soils. Land-use types which can be analysed include arable, horticulture, forestry, and several sheep, beef, dairy, and deer farming variations.
The initial impetus for CLUES development came from MAF, who wanted 'what if'' scenarios to be modelled at large scales. A number of existing modelling and mapping procedures, developed by various research organisations, have been amalgamated to produce CLUES.
|Latest Version||CLUES 10 for ArcGIS 10|
|State of Development||Released and updated|
|Outcome Areas||Economic, Environmental|
|Management Domains||Land, Freshwater|
|Intended End Users||
|Steady State or Dynamic||Steady State|
|Level of Integration||Economic, Environmental|
|Key Input Data||Macro-economic data, Land Use, Land Cover, Rainfall, Runoff, Drainage|
|Input Data Formats||CSV, GIS compatible files|
|Key Output Data||Runoff Water quality|
|Output Data Formats||CSV, Image File(s), GIS Compatible Files|
|Open/Closed Source||Closed Source|
|Licence Type||Licence appended to manual.|
|Licence Purchase Contact||
|Operating Systems||MS Windows|
|User Interface||Graphical desktop|
|Ease of Use||Moderate|
|Use in Policy Process||Plan (Policy Formulation), Review (Issue Identification)|
Download background reports, software and manual from NIWA ftp site
|Support||Ongoing maintenance and support - contact CLUES@niwa.co.nz|
|Users Forum||Regular updates available upon registration to user group - contact CLUES@niwa.co.nz|
|Methods included for calibration and validation||See manual|
See manual for further detail.
|Keywords||land use, water quality, socio-economic, catchment|
|Linkages to other Models|
CLUES Estuary - Plew, D., Zeldis, J., Shankar, U., Elliot,S. (2015) CLUES Estuary – a tool for predicting estuary water quality. Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference, Auckland, New Zealand.
Semadeni-Davies, A.; Elliott, S. and Shankar, U. (2014): How CLUES can help in Managing Catchment Nutrient Limits. NIWA Paper
Semadeni-Davies, A., Shankar, U. and Elliott, S. (2012): CLUES 10 Installation and Interface: Addendum to the CLUES 3.1 User Manual. Prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. NIWA Client Report: AKL2012-007.
Semadeni-Davies, A.; Elliott, S. and Shankar, U. (2011): The CLUES Project: Tutorial manual for CLUES 3.0. Commissioned by Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, NIWA Client Report: HAM2011-003
Elliott, A.H, et, al,.(2016): A national-scale GIS-based system for modelling impacts of land use on water quality. Environmental Modelling & Software, Volume 86,Pages 131-144.
Woods, R.; Elliott, S.; Shankar, U.; Bidwell, V.; Harris, S.; Wheeler, D.; Clothier, B.; Green, S.; Hewitt, A.; Gibb, R. & Parfitt, R. (2006). The CLUES Project: Predicting the Effects of Land use on Water Quality – Stage II. Prepared for Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry by NIWA, Client Report: CHC2006–096
Monaghan, R.M.; Semadeni-Davies, A.; Muirhead, R.W. Elliott S. and Shankar U. (2010) Land use and land management risks to water quality in Southland. AgResearch Client Report, prepared for Environment Southland.
McBride, G.B.; Rys, G.; Elliott, S.; Shankar, U.; Semadeni-Davies, A. (2008). "CLUES: Do we have any idea about the nutrient impacts of land use change at the catchment level?" Fertiliser & Lime Research Centre, Massey University, 21st Annual Workshop: Carbon and nutrient management in agriculture: Addressing the hard questions. 13–15 February.
Environment Southland contracted NIWA to simulate the effects of land use change and farm mitigation practices on water quality (loads and concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) for the Mataura River catchment (5350 km2) using the CLUES 3.0 model.
The CLUES model was used as a part of the Northland Sediment Study (NSS) which had the aim of assessing the potential economic costs of achieving sediment and microbial water quality objectives in the Whangarei Harbour catchment area.
Waitaki River Water Quality (Canterbury): Palliser et al 2015 Waitaki Water Quality Catchment Modelling Report prepared by NIWA for Environment Canterbury
Northland Sediment Study: E. coli modelling - http://www.mpi.govt.nz/dmsdocument/16546-northland-sediment-study-e-coli-modelling
Modelling the potential impact of New Zealand’s freshwater reforms on land-based Greenhouse Gas emissions - http://www.mpi.govt.nz/dmsdocument/16858-modelling-the-potential-impact-of-new-zealands-freshwater-reforms-on-land-based-greenhouse-gas-emissions