Emissions and socio-economics spatial model (ESESM)


The ESESM model has been designed to assist Regional Council staff to maximise the benefit of funding allocated to financial incentives programmes for air quality measures to achieve the greatest possible reduction in PM10 emissions for each dollar that is spent on incentives.


An Emissions and Socio-economic Model (ESESM) has been developed on a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. The model presents the spatial distribution of PM10 emissions from domestic solid fuel heating on census area unit (CAU) and mesh block scales. The model contains emission information specific for every CAU in New Zealand and can be used to analyse emissions from all 42 gazetted airsheds.

ESESM enables the easy identification of areas that have relatively high PM10 emissions from home heating sources. The model defines the number of houses (private and rental) burning wood or coal within any particular CAU. The model also provides social and economic indicators of the household contained within each CAU. ESESM is an integral part of the Good Practice Guide’s toolkit for designing and implementing an incentive programme for air quality management.

The outputs form ESESM will support the process for determining the most effective incentives programme for achieving PM10 reductions from home heating over a range of emission management scenarios and spatial scales. It is also anticipated that ESESM will reduce costs and resources required for the development of Resource Management Act (s32) documents that are required to support the implementation of an incentive programme.

State of Development Please Select

Development Contact


Main Developers

  • National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)


Outcome Areas Economic, Environmental, Social
Management Domains Community
Subdomains Air Quality Monitoring
Intended End Users
  • Regional Council Scientist
  • General Usability
  • Regional Council staff
Spatial Extents Regional
Spatial Dimensions 1D, 2D
Temporal Resolutions Years
Steady State or Dynamic Steady State
Level of Integration Economic, Environmental, Social

Input & Output Data

Key Input Data Micro-economic data, Population cohorts, Deprivation index
Key Output Data Deprivation index PM10, income, rates rebated, No. of households
Output Data Formats Image File(s)


Open/Closed Source Open Source
Licence Type No Licence

User Information

Operating Systems MS Windows
Software Needed Web-browser
User Interface Other (please specify) Web–based interface
Ease of Use Please Select
Use in Policy Process Plan (Policy Formulation), Check (Policy Evaluation)


Technical Considerations

Analytical Techniques GIS
Keywords air quality, incentives, pollutants, PM10, solid fuel heating

Guide to using ESESM:   http://www.envirolink.govt.nz/assets/Envirolink/Incentives20for20Air20Quality20Tool20-20Appendix20H20ESESM.pdf

Raumati South Air Quality http://www.gw.govt.nz/assets/Our-Environment/Environmental-monitoring/Environmental-Reporting/Raumati-South-Air-Quality-Investigation-Report-Screen-Version-indd.pdf

Key References

Wilton, E., Baynes, M., Bluette, J. (2010): Good practice guide for designing and implementing an incentive programme for domestic heating. Report prepared under the Envirolink Tools project number NIWX0802