A Health Effects Model allows end users to run scenarios to undertake sensitivity testing to test the effects of different assumptions, evaluate the effects of population and emissions trends, or review the effectiveness of different air quality management options.
A Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand Study was first carried out in 2007 to comprehensively assess the air pollution health effects in New Zealand.
An Updated Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand (Updated HAPINZ) study was commissioned in 2010 by the Health Research Council of New Zealand in partnership with the Ministry for the Environment, Ministry of Transport, New Zealand Transport Agency with in-kind support from the Ministry of Health and the legacy Auckland Regional Council. This resulted in an updated report on the health effects and the development of two assessment models based on an Excel spreadsheet. The full history and documentation from these studies are available on the HAPINZ website.
Air pollution in New Zealand is a complex mixture of gases and particles. The assessment by the Updated HAPINZ research team involved particulate matter less than 10 micrometres in size (PM10) as the majority of health effects in New Zealand are associated with this pollutant. The updated study sought to identify the effects of air pollution throughout New Zealand and link these effects to the various levels of air pollution. It also sought to correct a number of errors that had been identified with the 2007 report in the review carried out in 2010. It is anticipated that the results obtained from the updated study will increase understanding of the links between sources of pollution, impacts on human health and the estimated costs of these impacts.
The Health Effects Model, based on an Excel spreadsheet,estimates health effects and social costs associated with air pollution for 2006. The model uses annual average annual average PM10 concentrations for each census area unit (CAU) across New Zealand and determines health effects and social costs associated with a range of air pollution sources, including:
The Model allows end-users to output results nationally, regionally, by Territorial Local Authority, by Statistics NZ urban areas, or by airshed. End-users are also able to run scenarios for comparison with the base case, by selecting from a range of plausible input values of population, exposure and epidemiological exposure-response functions.
The scenario option can be used to undertake sensitivity testing to test the effects of different assumptions, evaluate the effects of population and emissions trends, or review the effectiveness of different air quality management options.
Data from the model can be exported and processed in GIS to provide spatial analysis and visualisations of the data.
|State of Development||Released and updated|
|Current Development Activity||Unknown|
|Outcome Areas||Environmental, Social|
|Management Domains||Air Quality|
|Subdomains||Air Quality Modelling|
|Intended End Users||
|Spatial Extents||National, Regional, Land or Business Unit, Local (i.e. Catchment or District)|
|Steady State or Dynamic||Steady State|
|Key Input Data||Health and Social outcomes|
|Input Data Formats||Entered directly into Excel Model|
|Key Output Data||Micro-economic data|
|Output Data Formats||XLS(S)|
|Open/Closed Source||Open Source|
|Licence Type||No Licence|
|Operating Systems||MS Windows, Mac OS X|
|Software Needed||GIS if spatial mapping required|
|User Interface||Graphical desktop (based in Excel|
|Ease of Use||Easy User guide provided and simple Tabs in Excel spreadsheet|
|Use in Policy Process||Plan (Policy Formulation), Do (Policy Implementation), Review (Issue Identification)|
User Guide and background documents on HAPINZ website
|Programming Language||Excel VBA|
|Keywords||Air Quality, Exposure model, Health effects model|
Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand - Website
To download reports (summary and technical), user guide, and Excel models
Kuschel, G., et. al. (2012): Updated Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand Study Volume 1: Summary Report, Prepared for Health Research Council of New Zealand, Ministry of Transport, Ministry for the Environmentand New Zealand Transport Agency
Kuschel, G., et. al. (2012): Updated Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand Study Volume 2: Technical Reports, Prepared for Health Research Council of New Zealand, Ministry of Transport, Ministry for the Environmentand New Zealand Transport Agency
The aim of this study was to assess the viability of their methods through an initial pilot study; in this case Christchurch City, with the objective of refining and improving the methodology throughout the study in anticipation of wider applications.