Description
Air pollution models that can be used to predict hour by hour pollution concentrations for periods of up to a year, are generally semiempirical/analytic approaches based on Gaussian plumes or puffs. These models typically use either a simple surface based meteorological file or a diagnostic wind field model based on available observations. TAPM is different to these approaches in that it solves approximations to the fundamental fluid dynamics and scalar transport equations to predict meteorology and pollutant concentration for a range of pollutants important for air pollution applications. TAPM consists of coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution concentration components, eliminating the need to have sitespecific meteorological observations. Instead, the model predicts the flows important to localscale air pollution, such as sea breezes and terrain induced flows, against a background of largerscale meteorology provided by synoptic analyses. The meteorological component of TAPM is an incompressible, nonhydrostatic, primitive equation model with a terrainfollowing vertical coordinate for threedimensional simulations. The model solves the momentum equations for horizontal wind components, the incompressible continuity equation for vertical velocity, and scalar equations for potential virtual temperature and specific humidity of water vapour, cloud water/ice, rain water and snow. The Exner pressure function is split into hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic components, and a Poisson equation is solved for the nonhydrostatic component. Explicit cloud microphysical processes are included. The turbulence terms in these equations have been determined by solving equations for turbulence kinetic energy and eddy dissipation rate, and then using these values to represent vertical fluxes by a gradient diffusion approach, including countergradient terms. A vegetative canopy, soil scheme, and urban scheme are used at the surface, while radiative fluxes, both at the surface and at upper levels, are also included. The air pollution component of TAPM, which uses the predicted meteorology and turbulence from the meteorological component, consists of four modules. The Eulerian Grid Module (EGM) solves prognostic equations for the mean and variance of concentration. The Lagrangian Particle Module (LPM) can be used to represent nearsource dispersion more accurately. The Plume Rise Module is used to account for plume momentum and buoyancy effects for point sources. The Building Wake Module allows plume rise and dispersion to include wake effects on meteorology and turbulence. The model also includes gasphase photochemical reactions based on the Generic Reaction Set, gas and aqueousphase chemical reactions for sulfur dioxide and particles, and a dust mode for total suspended particles (PM2.5, PM10, PM20 and PM30). Wet and dry deposition effects are also included.
Purpose
TAPM is a model developed to estimate the spread and impact of air pollution. It is a meteorological, prognostic air pollution model.
Latest Version 
4 
State of Development 
Please Select 
Development Contact
Mary Edwards or Peter Hurley
mary.edwards@csiro.au
+61 3 9239 4400
CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research
107  121 Station Street
ASPENDALE VIC 3195
Australia
Main Developers
 The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
Scope
Steady State or Dynamic 
Unknown 
Input & Output Data
Accessibility
Open/Closed Source 
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User Information
User Interface 
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Ease of Use 
Moderate

Use in Policy Process 
Plan (Policy Formulation),
Do (Policy Implementation)

Documentation 
http://www.cmar.csiro.au/research/tapm/docs/CSIROTAPM_V4_Information_sheet.pdf
http://www.cmar.csiro.au/research/tapm/docs/tapm_v4_user_manual.pdf
http://www.cmar.csiro.au/research/tapm/docs/tapm_v4_technical_paper_part1.pdf 
Technical Considerations
Model Structure 
The meteorological component of TAPM is an incompressible, optionally nonhydrostatic, primitive equation model with a terrainfollowing vertical coordinate for threedimensional simulations. It includes parameterisations for cloud/rain/snow microphysical processes, turbulence closure, urban/vegetative canopy and soil, and radiative fluxes. The model solution for winds, potential virtual temperature and specific humidity, is weakly nudged with a 24hour efolding time towards the synopticscale input values of these variables. Note that the horizontal model domain size is restricted in size to less than 1500 km x 1500 km, as the model equations neglect time zones, the curvature of the earth and assume a uniform distance grid spacing across the domain.

Keywords 
air quality, pollution, meteorological 
Links 
http://www.cmar.csiro.au/research/tapm 